Are They Really Being Served? Assessing Effective Infrastructure Access and Quality in 15 Kenyan Cities
"This paper proposes a framework that examines three levels of access to infrastructure -- nominal, effective, and quality-adjusted access. Most conventional indicators measure nominal access --whether a household has physical access to a service in or near the house.
This note describes efforts by the government of Kenya, the World Bank and other development partners to improve access to commercial finance for water and sanitation projects, within the context of sector reforms and innovative financing initiatives.
Given the significant financing gap to meet the needs of developing countries and achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals*, governments, multilaterals and other development partners are increasingly looking to the private sector to help fill this gap.
In Nairobi, Kenya, roughly 2 million people live in informal settlements, many below the poverty line. A key factor that has kept this population in poverty is a lack of electricity.